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El transporte de grandes secciones (I)


Circulando por las carreteras andaluzas, a veces nos topamos con algún convoy de transporte especial cargado con una enorme sección de aeronave que, además de entorpecer el tráfico, llama la atención de muchos conductores.

En esta serie de entradas (de la que ésta es la primera) contaremos algo acerca de este tipo de transportes para los que estén interesados en conocerlos un poco mejor.

Fotografía: convoy de transporte de la cabina del A380 circulando por una travesía urbana.

Es evidente que el problema del transporte de grandes componentes aeronáuticos presenta una serie de peculiaridades que hace complicado encontrar un método sistemático para el tratamiento del mismo. A la hora de abordarlo, existen tres factores claves: la geometría de los elementos a transportar, la seguridad del elemento durante el tránsito, y la rigidez de los tiempos de entrega.

La forma usual de realizar el reparto de los paquetes de trabajo entre los socios o partners incide en la geometría del elemento a transportar. Normalmente este reparto acaba dividiendo a una aeronave comercial de tamaño medio en semi-alas (que pueden llegar a tomar unas dimensiones de unos 25m de largo y 9m de ancho), cabina (con un diámetro típico de 5m, y una longitud similar), fuselaje delantero y trasero (cuyas longitudes pueden llegar a estar en torno a los 10m cada una), fuselaje central (de longitud mayor aún que las del fuselaje delantero y trasero), cono de cola (con unos 10m de longitud), estabilizador horizontal (que suele ser transportado integrado y llegar a tomar longitudes de en torno a los 10m de envergadura y 7m de ancho) y estabilizador vertical (de unos 5m de largo y unos 6m en el encastre).

Como comentamos en otra entrada, estos elementos suelen ser transportados “fully equipped and tested” (equipados y probados), por medio de sofisticados útiles de transporte, de geometrías muy dispares, y cuya principal finalidad es la de alojar y proteger el elemento durante todo el trayecto. La seguridad del elemento es tenida en cuenta hasta el punto de que estos útiles de transporte se diseñan bajo requerimientos estructurales que contemplan la protección del elemento contra las cargas producidas en un eventual accidente del vehículo que los transporta.

Otras de las peculiaridades del transporte de elementos aeronáuticos es el tiempo de tránsito o duración del trayecto. Debido a la imposibilidad de tener un stock ilimitado de estos grandes elementos en las líneas de ensamblaje final, se hace crucial para garantizar la entrega según la cadencia del programa, respetar escrupulosamente el tiempo de viaje asignado a cada trayecto.

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  2. Este tema es muy interesante, las secciones se transportan por tierra mar y aire, aunque supongo que eso será objeto de los próximos artículos de la serie.

    El primer juego de alas del A400M se ensambló en Sevilla y se trasladó por carretera a Getafe (eran parte del prototipo de ensayos estáticos).

    Recuerdo que antes de transportar las alas se estudió todo el trayecto para asegurarse que cabía. Incluso hubo que fabricar una aqueta de las alas a escala real, y hacer la prueba de transportarla a Madrid por la ruta prevista. Un dineral, pero supongo que con las tolerancias que se manejan en la construcción de túneles y puentes no se puede uno arriesgar a confiar en los planos.

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  4. Me has leido el pensamiento... una de las siguientes cosas a publicar es sobre el 380 y parte de su transporte... visto lo visto, pongo las fotos y el resto te lo dejo a ti :)

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